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title Analysis of CO2 monitoring data demonstrates poor ventilation rates in Albanian schools during the cold season
authors Hanninen, O; Canha, N; Kulinkina, AV; Dume, I; Deliu, A; Mataj, E; Lusati, A; Krzyzanowski, M; Egorov, AI
author full name Hanninen, Otto; Canha, Nuno; Kulinkina, Alexandra V.; Dume, Ilir; Deliu, Agron; Mataj, Elida; Lusati, Arben; Krzyzanowski, Michal; Egorov, Andrey I.
title Analysis of CO2 monitoring data demonstrates poor ventilation rates in Albanian schools during the cold season
nationality internacional
language English
document type Article
author keywords Schools; Classrooms; Indoor air quality; Ventilation; Carbon dioxide; Carbon monoxide
keywords plus INDOOR AIR-QUALITY
abstract Poor ventilation in schools is associated with accumulation of indoor-generated pollutants, which is associated with “stuffy” air, elevated risk of infectious diseases and impaired learning outcomes. This survey in Albania was conducted as part of WHO’s efforts to facilitate assessments of indoor air quality and other environmental factors in schools in the European Region. The survey was conducted in 36 classrooms in 12 middle schools (eight urban and four rural) from December 2011 through March 2012. In each school, carbon dioxide (CO2) was continuously measured in three classrooms during one school week. Ventilation rates during classes were estimated using the build-up and steady-state mass balance equations utilizing CO2 concentration data, classroom occupancy and classroom volume. All 12 schools had gravimetric ventilation systems. Heating systems were absent or not operational in most schools. Average classroom temperatures during lessons varied from 9.1 to 14.4 °C (median 11.7 °C) with lower temperature associated with poorer ventilation. Weekly average CO2 levels during classes ranged from 1286 to 5546 ppm (median 2776 ppm) while average ventilation rates ranged from 0.8 to 3.6 (median 1.8) litres per second per person. Classrooms with indoor combustion heaters had higher indoor temperature, lower CO2 levels and higher levels of carbon monoxide (CO). WHO guidelines on 1- and 8-h CO exposure levels were exceeded in one classroom. Classroom CO2 levels were substantially above and ventilation rates below existing national and international guidelines. Detrimental impacts of poor ventilation on health and learning outcomes are likely to be substantial in Albanian schools during the cold season. Indoor temperature in most classrooms was below the commonly recommended levels.
author address [Hanninen, Otto] Natl Inst Hlth & Welf THL, Kuopio, Finland; [Canha, Nuno] Univ Lisbon, Inst Super Tecn, Ctr Ciencias & Tecnol Nucl, Estr Nacl 10,Km 139-7, P-2695066 Bobadela Lrs, Portugal; [Canha, Nuno] Univ Aveiro, Dept Environm & Planning, CESAM Ctr Environm & Marine Studies, P-3810193 Aveiro, Portugal; [Kulinkina, Alexandra V.] Tufts Univ, Sch Engn, Medford, MA 02155 USA; [Dume, Ilir; Deliu, Agron; Mataj, Elida; Lusati, Arben] Natl Publ Hlth Inst, Tirana, Albania; [Krzyzanowski, Michal; Egorov, Andrey I.] WHO, European Ctr Environm & Hlth, Bonn, Germany; [Krzyzanowski, Michal] Kings Coll London, London, England
reprint address Hanninen, O (reprint author), Natl Inst Hlth & Welf THL, Kuopio, Finland.
e-mail address otto.hanninen@thl.fi
funding agency and grant number World Health Organization; Academy of Finland [133792]; Portuguese Science Foundation (FCT, Portugal) [SFRH/BPD/102944/2014]; FCT [UID/Multi/04349/2013]; FCT (through the CESAM's strategic programme) [UID/AMB/50017/2013]
funding text This work was co-funded by the participating institutes and World Health Organization. O. Hanninen was supported by Academy of Finland Contract 133792 (PMSizex) for the mathematical part of mass balance re-analysis and N. Canha by the Postdoc grant SFRH/BPD/102944/2014 from the Portuguese Science Foundation (FCT, Portugal). The FCT support is also gratefully acknowledged by C2TN/IST and CESAM's author (through the UID/Multi/04349/2013 project and through the CESAM's strategic programme UID/AMB/50017/2013).
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cited reference count 23
publisher city CHAM
publisher address GEWERBESTRASSE 11, CHAM, CH-6330, SWITZERLAND
issn 1873-9318
29-character source abbreviation AIR QUAL ATMOS HLTH
iso source abbreviation Air Qual. Atmos. Health
publication date AUG
year published 2017
volume 10
issue 6
beginning page 773
ending page 782
digital object identifier (doi) 10.1007/s11869-017-0469-9
page count 10
web of science category Environmental Sciences
subject category Environmental Sciences & Ecology
document delivery number FF5MX
unique article identifier WOS:000409036700009
link http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11869-017-0469-9
CESAM authors