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title Particulate pollutants in the Brazilian city of Sao Paulo: 1-year investigation for the chemical composition and source apportionment
authors Pereira, GM; Teinila, K; Custodio, D; Santos, AG; Xian, H; Hillamo, R; Alves, CA; de Andrade, JB; da Rocha, GO; Kumar, P; Balasubramanian, R; Andrade, MD; Vasconcellos, PD
author full name Pereira, Guilherme Martins; Teinila, Kimmo; Custodio, Danilo; Santos, Aldenor Gomes; Xian, Huang; Hillamo, Risto; Alves, Celia A.; de Andrade, Jailson Bittencourt; da Rocha, Gisele Olimpio; Kumar, Prashant; Balasubramanian, Rajasekhar; Andrade, Maria de Fatima; Vasconcellos, Perola de Castro
title Particulate pollutants in the Brazilian city of Sao Paulo: 1-year investigation for the chemical composition and source apportionment
nationality internacional
source ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY AND PHYSICS
language English
document type Article
keywords plus POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC-HYDROCARBONS; WATER-SOLUBLE IONS; POSITIVE MATRIX FACTORIZATION; PM2.5 MASS CONCENTRATIONS; ATMOSPHERIC AEROSOLS; METROPOLITAN-AREA; AIR-POLLUTION; SEASONAL-VARIATION; ROAD TUNNEL; NITRO-PAHS
abstract Sao Paulo in Brazil has relatively relaxed regulations for ambient air pollution standards and often experiences high air pollution levels due to emissions of particulate pollutants from local sources and long-range transport of air masses impacted by biomass burning. In order to evaluate the sources of particulate air pollution and related health risks, a year-round sampling was done at the University of Sao Paulo campus (20ma.g.l.), a green area near an important expressway. The sampling was performed for PM2. 5 (<= 2: 5 mu m) and PM10 (<= 10 mu m) in 2014 through intensive (everyday sampling in wintertime) and extensive campaigns (once a week for the whole year) with 24 h of sampling. This year was characterized by having lower average precipitation compared to meteorological data, and high-pollution episodes were observed all year round, with a significant increase in pollution level in the intensive campaign, which was performed during wintertime. Different chemical constituents, such as carbonaceous species, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and derivatives, water-soluble ions, and biomass burning tracers were identified in order to evaluate health risks and to apportion sources. The species such as PAHs, inorganic and organic ions, and monosaccharides were determined using chromatographic techniques and carbonaceous species using thermal-optical analysis. Trace elements were determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The risks associated with particulate matter exposure based on PAH concentrations were also assessed, along with indexes such as the benzo[a] pyrene equivalent (BaPE) and lung cancer risk (LCR). High BaPE and LCR were observed in most of the samples, rising to critical values in the wintertime. Also, biomass burning tracers and PAHs were higher in this season, while secondarily formed ions presented low variation throughout the year. Meanwhile, vehicular tracer species were also higher in the intensive campaign, suggesting the influence of lower dispersion conditions in that period. Source apportionment was performed using positive matrix factorization (PMF), which indicated five different factors: road dust, industrial emissions, vehicular exhaust, biomass burning and secondary processes. The results highlighted the contribution of vehicular emissions and the significant input from biomass combustion in wintertime, suggesting that most of the particulate matter is due to local sources, in addition to the influence of pre-harvest sugarcane burning.
author address [Pereira, Guilherme Martins; Custodio, Danilo; Vasconcellos, Perola de Castro] Univ Sao Paulo, Inst Chem, BR-05508000 Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil; [Teinila, Kimmo; Hillamo, Risto] Finnish Meteorol Inst, POB 503, FIN-00101 Helsinki, Finland; [Custodio, Danilo; Alves, Celia A.] Univ Aveiro, CESAM, P-3810193 Aveiro, Portugal; [Custodio, Danilo; Alves, Celia A.] Univ Aveiro, Dept Environm, P-3810193 Aveiro, Portugal; [Pereira, Guilherme Martins; Santos, Aldenor Gomes; de Andrade, Jailson Bittencourt; da Rocha, Gisele Olimpio; Vasconcellos, Perola de Castro] Univ Fed Bahia, INCT Energy & Environm, BR-40170115 Salvador, BA, Brazil; [Santos, Aldenor Gomes; de Andrade, Jailson Bittencourt; da Rocha, Gisele Olimpio] Univ Fed Bahia, CIEnAm, BR-40170115 Salvador, BA, Brazil; [Santos, Aldenor Gomes; de Andrade, Jailson Bittencourt; da Rocha, Gisele Olimpio] Univ Fed Bahia, Inst Chem, BR-40170115 Salvador, BA, Brazil; [Xian, Huang; Balasubramanian, Rajasekhar] Natl Univ Singapore, Dept Civil & Environm Engn, E1A 07-03, Singapore 117576, Singapore; [Kumar, Prashant] Univ Surrey, Global Ctr Clean Air Res GCARE, Dept Civil & Environm Engn, Fac Engn & Phys Sci, Guildford GU2 7XH, Surrey, England; [Kumar, Prashant] Univ Surrey, Environm Flow Res Ctr, Fac Engn & Phys Sci, Guildford GU2 7XH, Surrey, England; [Andrade, Maria de Fatima] Univ Sao Paulo, Inst Astron Geophys & Atmospher Sci, BR-05508090 Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil
reprint address Pereira, GM (reprint author), Univ Sao Paulo, Inst Chem, BR-05508000 Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil.; Pereira, GM (reprint author), Univ Fed Bahia, INCT Energy & Environm, BR-40170115 Salvador, BA, Brazil.
e-mail address martinspereira2@hotmail.com
researcherid number Alves, Celia/E-7583-2013; Vasconcellos, Perola/C-6893-2012
orcid number Alves, Celia/0000-0003-3231-3186; Vasconcellos, Perola/0000-0001-7209-274X
funding agency and grant number FAPESP; Sao Paulo Research Foundation; CNPq [152601/2013-9]; National Council for Scientific and Technological Development; Santander Bank; University of Surrey through UGPN; University of Sao Paulo through UGPN; CNPq; CAPES; FAPESB; FINEP; PETROBRAS; Fundacao Lehmann
funding text This work was supported by grants from FAPESP, Sao Paulo Research Foundation and CNPq (project 152601/2013-9); the National Council for Scientific and Technological Development for the postgraduate scholarship and Santander Bank for an international scholarship in Helsinki, Finland. The authors also thank INCT Energy and Environment. Prashant Kumar also acknowledges the collaborative funding received by the Universities of Surrey and Sao Paulo through the UGPN-funded projects BIOBURN (Towards the Treatment of Aerosol Emissions from Biomass Burning in Chemical Transport Models through a case study in the Metropolitan Area of Sao Paulo) and NEST-SEAS (Next-Generation Environmental Sensing for Local to Global Scale Health Impact Assessment) that allowed Guilherme Martins Pereira to work at the University of Surrey, United Kingdom. Perola de Castro Vasconcellos, Gisele Olimpio da Rocha and Jailson Bittencourt de Andrade thank CNPq for their fellowships. Aldenor Gomes Santos, Gisele Olimpio da Rocha and Jailson Bittencourt de Andrade also thank CAPES, CNPq, FAPESB, FINEP and PETROBRAS for research funding at UFBA. Finally, Gisele Olimpio da Rocha is thankful for partial fellowship funding from Fundacao Lehmann. Guilherme Martins Pereira also thanks Ioar Rivas and students Bruna Segalin and Fatima Khanun for the help with the PMF analysis.
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cited reference count 143
publisher COPERNICUS GESELLSCHAFT MBH
publisher city GOTTINGEN
publisher address BAHNHOFSALLEE 1E, GOTTINGEN, 37081, GERMANY
issn 1680-7316
29-character source abbreviation ATMOS CHEM PHYS
iso source abbreviation Atmos. Chem. Phys.
publication date OCT 9
year published 2017
volume 17
issue 19
beginning page 11943
ending page 11969
digital object identifier (doi) 10.5194/acp-17-11943-2017
subject category 27
document delivery number Meteorology & Atmospheric Sciences
unique article identifier Meteorology & Atmospheric Sciences
link https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-2017-317
CESAM authors