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title Enchytraeid Reproduction Test(PLUS): hatching, growth and full life cycle test-an optional multi-endpoint test with Enchytraeus crypticus
authors Bicho, RC; Santos, FCF; Goncalves, MFM; Soares, AMVM; Amorim, MJB
author full name Bicho, Rita C.; Santos, Fatima C. F.; Goncalves, Micael F. M.; Soares, Amadeu M. V. M.; Amorim, Monica J. B.
title Enchytraeid Reproduction Test(PLUS): hatching, growth and full life cycle test-an optional multi-endpoint test with Enchytraeus crypticus
nationality internacional
source ECOTOXICOLOGY
language English
document type Article
author keywords Life stages; Hatching; Growth; Full life cycle; Population growth rate; Soil ecotoxicology
keywords plus SLUG DEROCERAS-RETICULATUM; EARTHWORM TEST METHODS; FOLSOMIA-CANDIDA; EMBRYONIC EXPOSURE; SOIL ECOTOXICOLOGY; GOLD NANOPARTICLES; CONTAMINATED SOIL; NATURAL SOILS; CU TOXICITY; CADMIUM
abstract Soil ecotoxicity standard tests for invertebrates are usually limited to the assessment of endpoints like survival and reproduction. Adverse effects may occur at other developmental stages, e.g. embryo development, hatching or growth. The species Enchytraeus crypticus is a model organism in the standard soil ecotoxicology test, where survival and reproduction are assessed. In the present study we optimized the test method to include additional endpoints. The proposed test started with synchronized age organisms', and included additionally hatching success, growth, maturation status and full life cycle. This allowed for the calculation of cocoon production and population growth rate. Results indicated that Cd is embryotoxic, main effect occurs on the embryo developmental stage and maturity. Further, the full life cycle test can discriminate between pre- and post-embryo formation. The increased sensitivity and full life cycle detail level makes it potentially useful for novel materials e.g. nanomaterials where the mode of action and hence effect target is unknown. [GRAPHICS] .
author address [Bicho, Rita C.; Santos, Fatima C. F.; Goncalves, Micael F. M.; Soares, Amadeu M. V. M.; Amorim, Monica J. B.] Univ Aveiro, Dept Biol, P-3810193 Aveiro, Portugal; [Bicho, Rita C.; Santos, Fatima C. F.; Goncalves, Micael F. M.; Soares, Amadeu M. V. M.; Amorim, Monica J. B.] Univ Aveiro, CESAM, P-3810193 Aveiro, Portugal
reprint address Bicho, RC (reprint author), Univ Aveiro, Dept Biol, P-3810193 Aveiro, Portugal.
e-mail address ritabicho@ua.pt
funding agency and grant number European Funds through COMPETE; National Funds through the Portuguese Science Foundation (FCT) [PEst-C/MAR/LA0017/2013]; FUBIA [FCOMP-01-0124-FEDER-008651, PTDC/AAC-CLI/103719/2008, BI/UI88/4494/2012]
funding text This work was supported by European Funds through COMPETE and by National Funds through the Portuguese Science Foundation (FCT) within Project PEst-C/MAR/LA0017/2013 and FUBIA FCOMP-01-0124-FEDER-008651 (Ref. PTDC/AAC-CLI/103719/2008) and a Research Grant to Rita Bicho (Ref. BI/UI88/4494/2012).
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cited reference count 55
publisher SPRINGER
publisher city DORDRECHT
publisher address VAN GODEWIJCKSTRAAT 30, 3311 GZ DORDRECHT, NETHERLANDS
issn 0963-9292
29-character source abbreviation ECOTOXICOLOGY
iso source abbreviation Ecotoxicology
publication date JUL
year published 2015
volume 24
issue 5
beginning page 1053
ending page 1063
digital object identifier (doi) 10.1007/s10646-015-1445-5
page count 11
web of science category Ecology; Environmental Sciences; Toxicology
subject category Environmental Sciences & Ecology; Toxicology
document delivery number CK0WU
unique article identifier WOS:000355927100008