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title Integrating Health on Air Quality Assessment-Review Report on Health Risks of Two Major European Outdoor Air Pollutants: PM and NO2
authors Costa, S; Ferreira, J; Silveira, C; Costa, C; Lopes, D; Relvas, H; Borrego, C; Roebeling, P; Miranda, AI; Teixeira, JP
author full name Costa, Solange; Ferreira, Joana; Silveira, Carlos; Costa, Carla; Lopes, Diogo; Relvas, Helder; Borrego, Carlos; Roebeling, Peter; Miranda, Ana Isabel; Teixeira, Joao Paulo
title Integrating Health on Air Quality Assessment-Review Report on Health Risks of Two Major European Outdoor Air Pollutants: PM and NO2
nationality internacional
source JOURNAL OF TOXICOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH-PART B-CRITICAL REVIEWS
language English
document type Review
keywords plus LONG-TERM EXPOSURE; PARTICLE NUMBER CONCENTRATIONS; AMERICAN-HEART-ASSOCIATION; FINE PARTICULATE MATTER; SUBTROPICAL CITY TAIPEI; EMERGENCY-ROOM VISITS; HOSPITAL ADMISSIONS; URBAN AIR; MYOCARDIAL-INFARCTION; CASE-CROSSOVER
abstract Quantifying the impact of air pollution on the public's health has become an increasingly critical component in policy discussion. Recent data indicate that more than 70% of the world population lives in cities. Several studies reported that current levels of air pollutants in urban areas are associated with adverse health risks, namely, cardiovascular diseases and lung cancer. IARC recently classified outdoor air pollution and related particulate matter (PM) as carcinogenic to humans. Despite the air quality improvements observed over the last few years, there is still continued widespread exceedance within Europe, particularly regarding PM and nitrogen oxides (NOx). The European Air Quality Directive 2008/50/EC requires Member States to design appropriate air quality plans for zones where air quality does not comply with established limit values. However, in most cases, air quality is only quantified using a combination of monitored and modeled data and no health impact assessment is carried out. An integrated approach combining the effects of several emission abatement measures on air quality, impacts on human health, and associated implementation costs enables an effective cost-benefit analysis and an added value to the decision-making process. Hence, this review describes the basic steps and tools for integrating health into air quality assessment (health indicators, exposure-response functions). In addition, consideration is given to two major outdoor pollutants: PM and NO2. A summary of the health metrics used to assess the health impact of PM and NO2 and recent epidemiologic data are also described.
author address [Costa, Solange; Costa, Carla; Teixeira, Joao Paulo] Natl Inst Publ Hlth, Dept Environm Hlth, P-4000055 Oporto, Portugal; [Costa, Solange; Costa, Carla; Teixeira, Joao Paulo] Univ Porto, Inst Publ Hlth ISPUP, P-4100 Oporto, Portugal; [Ferreira, Joana; Silveira, Carlos; Lopes, Diogo; Relvas, Helder; Borrego, Carlos; Roebeling, Peter; Miranda, Ana Isabel] Univ Aveiro, Ctr Environm & Marine Studies, P-3800 Aveiro, Portugal; [Ferreira, Joana; Silveira, Carlos; Lopes, Diogo; Relvas, Helder; Borrego, Carlos; Roebeling, Peter; Miranda, Ana Isabel] Univ Aveiro, Dept Environm & Planning CESAM, P-3800 Aveiro, Portugal
reprint address Costa, S (reprint author), Natl Inst Publ Hlth, Dept Environm Hlth, Rua Alexandre Herculano 321, P-4000055 Oporto, Portugal.
e-mail address solange.costa2@gmail.com
funding agency and grant number Fundacao para a Ciencia e Tecnologia (FCT) [PTDC/AAG-MAA/4077/2012]
funding text This work is supported by Fundacao para a Ciencia e Tecnologia (FCT) under the grant PTDC/AAG-MAA/4077/2012.
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publisher TAYLOR & FRANCIS INC
publisher city PHILADELPHIA
publisher address 530 WALNUT STREET, STE 850, PHILADELPHIA, PA 19106 USA
issn 1093-7404
29-character source abbreviation J TOXICOL ENV HEAL B
iso source abbreviation J. Toxicol. Env. Health-Pt b-Crit. Rev.
publication date AUG 18
year published 2014
volume 17
issue 6
beginning page 307
ending page 340
digital object identifier (doi) 10.1080/10937404.2014.946164
page count 34
web of science category Environmental Sciences; Public, Environmental & Occupational Health; Toxicology
subject category Environmental Sciences & Ecology; Public, Environmental & Occupational Health; Toxicology
document delivery number AR1AH
unique article identifier WOS:000343310600001
link 10.1080/10937404.2014.946164