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  Carlos Gravato  
  e-mail: gravatoc@ua.pt  
  Category: Principal Researcher  
  Department: Department of Biology  
  Research group: Functional Biodiversity
ISI Web of KnowledgeSM search factor: Gravato C* OR C* Gravato OR Carlos Gravato; http://orcid.org/0000-0003-0562-6945; Researcher ID D-4261-2013  
  Direct URL for this page: http://www.cesam.ua.pt/gravatoc  

Carlos Alexandre Sarabando Gravato graduated in Biology (1995, University of Aveiro), completed his Master degree in Cell Biology (1999, JNICT grant 1 year, University of Coimbra) and obtained his PhD degree in Biology (2002, FCT grant 4 years, University of Aveiro). He was a post-doc at the Department of Biology (2002-2005, FCT grant 3 years, University of Aveiro), invited professor at the Department of Biology (2003-2006, contract 50% with University of Aveiro), post-doc at the Interdisciplinary Centre of Marine and Environmental Research - CIIMAR (2005-2008, FCT grant 3 years, University of Porto), Assistant Researcher at CIIMAR (2008-2013, Ciência 2007, 5 years contract, CIIMAR, University of Porto). At the present, Gravato is Principal Researcher at CESAM (2015-2020, IF/1401/2014, 5 years contract, DeBio & CESAM, University of Aveiro). Before, he was a post-doc at University Federal of Goiás (2013-2014, Grant for Young Talent of CAPES, Brazil) in collaboration, as a post-doc, with the Department of Biology and CESAM (2013-2015, University of Aveiro).

Gravato has participated in 8 research projects funded by FCT and 1 European project. Gravato has an h-index of 24 and published 1 book chapter and more than 55 publications in international peer reviewed journals with over 1400 citations.He has more than 30 oral communications and 100 posters in international and national congresses. Gravato was chair (2010) or co-chair (2007 and 2008) of sessions of Annual Meetings of the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry – SETAC Europe – and co-chair (2010) of a session of National Congress of Ecology.

The paper Almeida et al., 2012 (Chemosphere) was considered the best publication by SETAC Europe in ecotoxicology, ecoepidemiology and biological/biochemical studies in 2012 and 1st author received RifCon award in 2013. The paper Silva et al., 2013 (Marine Environmental Research) was in 10th in the Top 24 (more than 600 downloads or views) of the most downloaded papers in the journal Marine Environmental Research.

Gravato was member of the jury of 10 PhD (Universities of Aveiro, Murcia, Cádiz) and 6 Master (Universities of Porto and Aveiro) thesis defences. He supervised or co-supervised 3 Post-Docs (FCT 3 years grant), 4 PhDs (FCT 4 years grant/each), 7 Master students and was responsible for the training of 5 graduate students and 5 European PhD students.

Gravato has been working with biomarkers in several species (aquatic invertebrates, fish, birds, soil organisms, insects, corals, mammals), has performed training in molecular tools at the University of Antwerp (supervised by Prof. Wim De Coen) and has been studying the link of those tools with animal behavioural responses to stress induced by chemicals or abiotic factors (PAHs, heavy metals, pesticides, nanoparticles, temperature).


  • “Behaviour as a sensitive and integrative approach that predicts the effects of environmental stressors in the aquatic environment: linking different levels of biological organization”. (2015-2020). (IF/011401/2014). Recent papers highlight that behavioural endpoints might be within the available tools to assess the status of aquatic environment filling the gap for the needed ecological relevance. Behaviour results from the integration of biochemical and physiological processes reflecting all changes in the health of organisms. Moreover, behavioural tests are non-invasive avoiding the sacrifice of animals, ecologically relevant, and simple, fast and cheap to perform. Despite these advantages several aspects were also pointed, namelly: I) biomarkers are not always able to predict effects on behaviour; II) behaviour was affected even without the link with the effects on other endpoints measured; III) results were not always predictable when trying to apply knowledge gained with one species to another or between chemicals. Thus, “is behaviour more sensitive than infra-individual tools?”; “Can behavioural endpoints predict effects at the population and community levels?”; “Why behavioural endpoints are not used to assess environmental quality?” This research plan, using an innovative and multidisciplinary approach, will analyse if behaviour is always affected by any environmental stressor independently of its mode of action and which are the infra-individual responses that are always linked with behavioural alterations. The main goals will be reached by linking animal behaviour with genomics and biochemistry. New biomarkers will explain why and how behaviour is affected. Therefore, they can be used and tested as early-warning tools to assess environmental quality in real scenarios of contamination. 

  • ALISSA - projeto de Investigação e Desenvolvimento Tecnológico – Empresas em Copromoção (PT 2020) com o tema “ALISSA – Bases para uma alimentação saudável e sustentável em peixes de aquacultura“ financiado por Fundos Europeus Estruturais e de Investimento (08/SI/2015) (2015-2018). The European Aquaculture faces great challenges, due to external competition and consumers demanding high quality products, environmental friendly and with competitive prices. Feeding is one of the major costs in fish production, representing usually 20-50% of operational costs. However, most commercial fish productions use non-optimised feeding regimes, resulting in poor feed conversion, additional feeding costs and environmental impacts. Feeding strategies are also strongly linked with an optimised nutrition, that provides an optimum growth (cost/benefit), with a minimum of waste (environmental impact) and allow optimal fish health. Meeting essential amino acids requirements, as well as knowledge on their metabolism, are particularly important. Furthermore, these requirements change in environmental stress, or disease situations. The central aim of the ALISSA project is to develop feed formuIations that promotes optimal nutritional and immune status, and within the parameters of economic and environmental sustainability in aquaculture fish. More specifically we intend to bring to market at the end of the project a highly innovative product, and two unique services with high added value: 1) A fish feed supplement range, allowing for fortifying specific amino acid contents, and enable optimum performance, and better resistance to pathogens, especially under stress conditions, as well as the recovery post-infection; 2) An improved computer application that simulates performance, biochemical composition, and environmental impacts in fish fed with different formulations and at different temperatures; 3) An evaluation service of nutritional and immune status of fish in aquaculture, based on molecular biomarkers, and depending on the aquafeeds employed. Two companies and seven research institutes are participating in the project, and in collaboration with potential distribution partners and customers, what strengthens the potential impact of this project on the European market.

  • “MINHO, MONDEGO, AND MIRA ESTUARIES observatory: Long term vaRiation of ECOLOGICAL sTAtus as a response to naturaL and human induced changes. Implications for management and restoration - 3M_RECITAL“ (LTER/BIA-BEC/0019/2009). 

  • “NISTRACKS – Factors contributing to different invasive behaviour of a non-indigenous species in two Portuguese estuaries and ecological impact on native key species.” (PTDC/AAC-AMB/102121/2008).

  • “RAMOCS – Implementation of Risk Assessment Methodologies for Oil and Chemical Spills in the European Marine Environment” (ERA-AMPERA/0001/2007).” – “European concerted action to foster prevention and best response to Accidental Marine Pollution – AMPERA” (ERAC-CT2005-016165) within the framework of the EU ERA-Net initiative (6th Framework Program).

  • “CRABTHEMES – Molecular, biochemical and genetic variability in estuarine populations of shore crab (Carcinus maenas) exposed to different levels of contamination.” (PTDC/MAR/71143/2006).

  • “Ecological and ecotoxicological effects of pesticides and pharmeceuticals of veterinary use on Daphnia magna” (Finnanced by the University of Porto, “Investigação Científica na Pré-Graduação: Projectos Pluridisciplinares”).

  • “CHOLINEOMANIA – Que tipo de contaminação por metais é eficazmente detectada pela colinesterase do camarão marinho Palaemon serratus?”(POCI/MAR/58244/2004).

  • “EELEANORA – Impact of the exposure to pollutants on the contribution of specific populations of the eel to the renewal European stock.” (POCTI/BSE/47918/2002).

  • “Biomarcadores bioquímicos, genotóxicos e morfológicos em espécies animais de vida aquática expostas a hidrocarbonetos policíclicos aromáticos e ácidos resínicos”. (Project PRAXIS XXI/PCNA/C/BIA/175/96).

  • “Transporte de Ca2+ por vesículas sinápticas: actividade, purificação e reconstituição do trocador Ca2+/H+”. (Project PBICT/P/BIA/2081/95).

Scientific Supervision
Post-doc (Main Supervisor): Virgília Sofia Silva

PhD (Main Supervisor): Carlos Silva
(not a CESAM member)

Post-doc (Co-supervisor): Marcelino Miguel Oliveira

PhD (Co-supervisor): Cristiana Oliveira
(ex-CESAM member)
PhD (Co-supervisor): Joana Reis Almeida
(not a CESAM member)

Master (Co-supervisor): Sónia Beleza Fernandes
(not a CESAM member)
Master (Co-supervisor): Maria João Cerqueira da Silva
(not a CESAM member)
Master (Co-supervisor): Marta Pena Fraga
(not a CESAM member)

BTI - Mestre (Main Supervisor): Ana Rita Almeida
BTI- Doutor (Main Supervisor): Ana Luisa Silva
(ex-CESAM member)
BTI - Mestre (Main Supervisor): Andreia do Carmo Martins Rodrigues

  1. Rodrigues A.C.M., Gravato C., Quintaneiro C., Bordalo M.D., Golovko O., Zlabek V., Barata C., Soares A.M.V.M., Pestana J.L.T. (2017) EXPOSURE TO CHLORANTRANILIPROLE AFFECTS THE ENERGY METABOLISM OF THE CADDISFLY SERICOSTOMA VITTATUM. Environmental Toxicology And Chemistry. 36, 6, 1584-1591. (see details) ISI paper
    Link: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/etc.3684/full
  2. Pedrosa J., Gravato C., Campos D., Cardoso P., Figueira E., Nowak C., Soares A.M.V.M., Barata C., Pestana J.L.T. (2017) Investigating heritability of cadmium tolerance in Chironomus riparius natural populations: A physiological approach. Chemosphere. 170, 83-94. (see details) ISI paper
  3. Saraiva A.S., Sarmento R.A., Rodrigues A.C.M., Campos D., Fedorova G., Zlabek V., Gravato C., Pestana J.L.T., Soares A.M.V.M. (2017) y Assessment of thiamethoxam toxicity to Chironomus riparius. Ecotoxicology And Environmental Safety. 137, 240-246. (see details) ISI paper
    Link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2016.12.009
  4. Campos D., Gravato C., Quintaneiro C., Soares A.M.V.M., Pestana J.L.T. (2016) Responses of the aquatic midge Chironomus riparius to DEET exposure. Aquatic Toxicology. 172, 80-85. (see details) ISI paper
  5. Diana Campos, Carlos Gravato, Carla Quintaneiro, Olga Koba, Tomas Randak, Amadeu M.V.M. Soares, João L.T. Pestana (2016) Are insect repellents toxic to freshwater insects? A case study using caddisflies exposed to DEET. Chemosphere. 149, 177-186. (see details) ISI paper
    Link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2016.01.098
  6. Rodrigues A.C.M., Gravato C., Quintaneiro C., Golovko O., Zlabek V., Barata C., Soares A.M.V.M., Pestana J.L.T. (2015) Life history and biochemical effects of chlorantraniliprole on Chironomus riparius. Science Of The Total Environment. 508, 506-513. (see details) ISI paper
    Link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2014.12.021
  7. Almeida J.R., Gravato C., Guilhermino L. (2015) Effects of Temperature in Juvenile Seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) Biomarker Responses and Behaviour: Implications for Environmental Monitoring. Estuaries And Coasts. 38, 1, 45-55. (see details) ISI paper
  8. Rodrigues A.C.M., Gravato C., Quintaneiro C., Barata C., Soares A.M.V.M., Pestana J.L.T. (2015) Sub-lethal toxicity of environmentally relevant concentrations of esfenvalerate to Chironomus ripanus. Environmental Pollution. 207, 273-279. (see details) ISI paper
  9. Gravato C., Almeida J.R., Silva C., Oliveira C., Soares A.M.V.M. (2014) Using a multibiomarker approach and behavioural responses to assess the effects of anthracene in Palaemon serratus. Aquatic Toxicology. 149, 94-102. (see details) ISI paper
    Link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aquatox.2014.01.024
  10. Oliva M., Gravato C., Guilhermino L., Galindo-Riano M.D., Perales J.A. (2014) EROD activity and cytochrome P4501A induction in liver and gills of Senegal sole Solea senegalensis from a polluted Huelva Estuary (SW Spain). Comparative Biochemistry And Physiology C-toxicology & Pharmacology. 166, 134-144. (see details) ISI paper
  11. Oropesa A.L., Gravato C., Sanchez S., Soler F. (2013) Characterization of plasma cholinesterase from the White stork (Ciconia ciconia) and its in vitro inhibition by anticholinesterase pesticides. Ecotoxicology And Environmental Safety. 97, 131-138. (see details) ISI paper
  12. Rodrigues A.P., Gravato C., Guimaraes L. (2013) Involvement of the antioxidant system in differential sensitivity of Carcinus maenas to fenitrothion exposure. Environmental Science-processes & Impacts. 15, 10, 1938-1948. (see details) ISI paper
  13. Oropesa A.L., Gravato C., Guilhermino L., Soler F. (2013) Antioxidant defences and lipid peroxidation in wild White Storks, Ciconia ciconia, from Spain. Journal Of Ornithology. 154, 4, 971-976. (see details) ISI paper
  14. Silva C., Oliveira C., Gravato C., Almeida J.R. (2013) Behaviour and biomarkers as tools to assess the acute toxicity of benzo(a)pyrene in the common prawn Palaemon serratus. Marine Environmental Research. 90, 39-46. (see details) ISI paper
    Link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marenvres.2013.05.010
  15. Oliveira C., Almeida J.R., Guilhermino L., Soares A., Gravato C. (2013) Swimming velocity, avoidance behavior and biomarkers in Palaemon serratus exposed to fenitrothion. Chemosphere. 90, 3, 936-944. (see details) ISI paper
    Link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2012.06.036
  16. Oliveira C., Almeida J., Guilhermino L., Soares A.M.V.M., Gravato C. (2012) Acute effects of deltamethrin on swimming velocity and biomarkers of the common prawn Palaemon serratus. Aquatic Toxicology. 124-125, 209-216. (see details) ISI paper
    Link: p://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aquatox.2012.08.010
  17. Oliva M., Perales J.A., Gravato C., Guilhermino L., Galindo-Riano M.D. (2012) Biomarkers responses in muscle of Senegal sole (Solea senegalensis) from a heavy metals and PAHs polluted estuary. Marine Pollution Bulletin. 64, 10, 2097-2108. (see details) ISI paper
  18. Almeida J.R., Gravato C., Guilhermino L. (2012) Biological Parameters Towards Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Pollution: A Study with Dicentrarchus labrax L. Exposed to the Model Compound Benzo(a)pyrene. Water Air And Soil Pollution. 223, 8, 4709-4722. (see details) ISI paper
  19. Oliveir M., Gravato C., Guilhermino L. (2012) Acute toxic effects of pyrene on Pomatoschistus microps (Teleostei, Gobiidae): Mortality, biomarkers and swimming performance. Ecological Indicators. 19, 206-214. (see details) ISI paper
  20. Almeida J.R., Gravato C., Guilhermino L. (2012) Challenges in assessing the toxic effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to marine organisms: A case study on the acute toxicity of pyrene to the European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.). Chemosphere. 86, 9, 926-937. (see details) ISI paper
  21. Gomes S.I.L., Novais S.C., Gravato C., Guilhermino L., Scott-Fordsmand J.J., Soares A.M.V.M., Amorim M.J.B. (2012) Effect of Cu-nanoparticles versus one Cu-salt: Analysis of stress biomarkers response in Enchytraeus albidus (Oligochaeta). Nanotoxicology. 6, 2, 134-143. (see details) ISI paper
  22. Oliva M., Vicente J.J., Gravato C., Guilhermino L., Galindo-Riano M.D. (2012) Oxidative stress biomarkers in Senegal sole, Solea senegalensis, to assess the impact of heavy metal pollution in a Huelva estuary (SW Spain): Seasonal and spatial variation. Ecotoxicology And Environmental Safety. 75, 151-162. (see details) ISI paper
  23. Amorim M.J.B., Oliveira E., Teixeira A.S., Gravato C. , Loureiro S., Van Gestel C.A.M., Guilhermino L., Soares A.M.V.M. (2011) Toxicity and bioaccumulation of phenanthrene in Enchytraeus albidus (Oligochaeta: Enchytraeidae). Environmental Toxicology And Chemistry. 30, 4, 967-972. (see details) ISI paper
    Link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/etc.464
  24. Howcroft C.F., Gravato C., Amorim M.J.B., Novais S., Soares A.M.V.M., Guilhermino L. (2011) Biochemical characterization of cholinesterases in Enchytraeus albidus and assessment of in vivo and in vitro effects of different soil properties, copper and phenmedipham. Ecotoxicology. 20, 1, 119-130. (see details) ISI paper
    Link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10646-010-0562-4
  25. Hernandez-Moreno D., Perez-Lopez M., Soler F., Gravato C., Guilhermino L. (2011) Effects of carbofuran on the sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.): Study of biomarkers and behaviour alterations. Ecotoxicology And Environmental Safety. 74, 7, 1905-1912. (see details) ISI paper
  26. Hernandez-Moreno D., Guilhermino L., Gravato C., Soler F., Perez-Lopez M. (2011) Acute toxicity of the pesticides carbofuran and deltamethrin on sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). Toxicology Letters. 205, S230-S230. (see details) ISI paper
  27. Novais S.C., Gomes S.I.L., Gravato C., Guilhermino L., De Coen W., Soares A.M.V.M., Amorim M.J.B. (2011) Reproduction and biochemical responses in Enchytraeus albidus (Oligochaeta) to zinc or cadmium exposures. Environmental Pollution. 159, 7, 1836-1843. (see details) ISI paper
  28. Almeida J.R., Oliveira C., Gravato C., Guilhermino L. (2010) Linking behavioural alterations with biomarkers responses in the European seabass Dicentrarchus labrax L. exposed to the organophosphate pesticide fenitrothion. Ecotoxicology. 19, 8, 1369-1381. (see details) ISI paper
  29. Oliva M., de Canales M.L.G., Gravato C., Guilhermino L., Perales J.A. (2010) Biochemical effects and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in senegal sole (Solea senegalensis) from a Huelva estuary (SW Spain). Ecotoxicology And Environmental Safety. 73, 8, 1842-1851. (see details) ISI paper
  30. Guimaraes L., Gravato C., Santos J., Faria M., Alves A., Guilhermino L. (2010) Impact of pollution on the development of glass eels (Anguilla anguilla) entering three NW Portuguese estuaries. Comparative Biochemistry And Physiology A-molecular & Integrative Physiology. 157, 1, S25-S25. (see details) ISI paper
  31. Hernandez-Garcia A., Romero D., Gravato C., Guilhermino L., Garcia-Fernandez A.J. (2010) Effects on enzymatic antioxidant system of mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) erythrocytes exposed in vitro to lead and cadmium. Toxicology Letters. 196, S128-S129. (see details) ISI paper
  32. Oliveira M., Vieira L.R., Gravato C., Guilhermino L. (2010) Acute effects of pyrene on the common goby pomatoschistus microps (Teleostei, Gobiidae). Toxicology Letters. 196, S127-S128. (see details) ISI paper
  33. Gravato C., Guimaraes L., Santos J., Faria M., Alves A., Guilhermino L. (2010) Comparative study about the effects of pollution on glass and yellow eels (Anguilla anguilla) from the estuaries of Minho, Lima and Douro Rivers (NW Portugal). Ecotoxicology And Environmental Safety. 73, 4, 524-533. (see details) ISI paper
  34. Howcroft C.F., Amorim M.J.B., Gravato C. , Guilhermino L. , Soares A.M.V.M. (2009) Effects of natural and chemical stressors on Enchytraeus albidus: Can oxidative stress parameters be used as fast screening tools for the assessment of different stress impacts in soils?. Environment International. 35, 2, 318-324. (see details) ISI paper
  35. Vieira L.R. , Gravato C., Soares A.M.V.M., Morgado F., Guilhermino L. (2009) Acute effects of copper and mercury on the estuarine fish Pomatoschistus microps: Linking biomarkers to behaviour. Chemosphere. 76, 10, 1416-1427. (see details) ISI paper
    Link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.Chemosphere.2009.06.005
  36. Guimaraes L., Gravato C., Santos J., Monteiro L.S., Guilhermino L. (2009) Yellow eel (Anguilla anguilla) development in NW Portuguese estuaries with different contamination levels. Ecotoxicology. 18, 4, 385-402. (see details) ISI paper
  37. Gravato C., Guilhermino L. (2009) Effects of Benzo(a)pyrene on Seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.): Biomarkers, Growth and Behavior. Human And Ecological Risk Assessment. 15, 1, 121-137. (see details) ISI paper
  38. Gravato C., Faria M., Alves A., Santos J., Guilhermino L. (2008) Biomonitoring studies performed with European Eel populations from the estuaries of Minho, Lima and Douro Rivers (NW Portugal). Advanced Environmental Monitoring. 390-401. 978-1-4020-6363-3. (see details) ISI paper
  39. Gravato C., Teles M., Oliveira M., Santos M.A. (2006) Oxidative stress, liver biotransformation and genotoxic effects induced by copper in Anguilla anguilla L. – the influence of pre-exposure to β-naphthoflavone. Chemosphere. 10, 65, 1821-1830. (see details) ISI paper
    Link: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6V74-4K3D314-1...
  40. Gravato C., Gravato, C., Oliveira M., Oliveira, M., Santos M. A., Santos, M. A. (2005) Genotoxic Effects and Oxidative Stress Responses Induced by Retene in Marine Mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis). Fresenius Environmental Bulletin . 1, 14, 44-49. (see details) ISI paper
  41. Gravato C., Oliveira M., Santos M. A. (2005) Mediterranean Mussels Oxidative Stress and Genotoxic Responses to Resin Acids. Ecotoxicology And Environmental Safety . 2, 61, 221-229. (see details) ISI paper
  42. Gravato C., Oliveira M., Santos M.A. (2004) Genotoxic effects and oxidative stress responses induced by retene in marine mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) . Fres. Environ. Bull.. 13, 795-800. (see details) ISI paper
  43. Teles M., Gravato C., Pacheco M., Santos M.A. (2004) Juvenile sea bass biotransformation, genotoxic and endocrine responses to -estradiol individual and combinedb-naphthoflavone, 4-nonylphenol and 17b exposures. Chemosphere. 2, 57, 147-158. (see details) ISI paper
  44. Oliveira, M., Santos, M.A., Gravato, C., Pacheco, M. (2003) Chromium effects on Anguilla anguilla liver organ culture. Fresenius Environmental Bulletin. 4, 12, 349-352. (see details) ISI paper
    Link: http://www.psp-parlar.de/details_artikel.asp?tabelle=FEBArtikel&artikel_...
  45. Gravato C., Santos M.A. (2003) Dicentrarchus labrax Biotransformation and Genotoxicity Responses after Exposure to a Secondary Treated industrial/urban effluent. . 300-306. Ecotoxicology And Environmental Safety. 55, 300-306. (see details) ISI paper
    Link: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6WDM-4899VRX-1...
  46. Gravato C, Santos M.A. (2003) Genotoxicity biomarkers’ association with B(a)P biotransformation in Dicentrarchus labrax L. Ecotoxicology And Environmental Safety. 55, 352-358. (see details) ISI paper
    Link: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6WDM-482YXFF-3...
  47. Maria V.L., Correia A.C, Gavato C, Santos M.A. (2002) Biotransformation and Genotoxicity Responses to PAHs in two teleost species. Fresenius Environmental Bulletin. 9, 11, 609-615. (see details) ISI paper
  48. Maria, V.L., Gravato C., Correia A., Santos M.A. (2002) Biotransformation and genotoxicity responses to PAHs in two teleost species. Fresenius Environmental Bulletin . 11:00, 609-615. (see details) ISI paper
  49. Gravato C., Santos M.A. (2002) Liver phase I and phase II enzymatic induction and genotoxic responses in sea bass exposed to B-naphthoflavone. Ecotoxicology And Environmental Safety. 52, 62-68. (see details) ISI paper
    Link: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6WDM-461K478-9...
  50. Gravato C., Santos M.A. (2002) β-Naphthoflavone liver EROD and erythrocytic nuclear abnormalities induction in juvenile Dicentrarchus labrax L. Ecotoxicology And Environmental Safety. 52, 69-74. (see details) ISI paper
    Link: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6WDM-461K478-B...
  51. Gravato C., Santos M.A. (2002) EROD induction in sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) and crab (Carcinus maenas L.). Fresenius Environmental Bulletin . 11, 605-608. (see details) ISI paper
    Link: http://www.psp-parlar.de/details_artikel.asp?tabelle=FEBArtikel&artikel_...
  52. Gravato C., Santos M.A. (2002) In vitro liver EROD activity inhibition by Ah-receptor agonists. Fresenius Environmental Bulletin. 11, 342-346. (see details) ISI paper
    Link: http://www.psp-parlar.de/details_artikel.asp?tabelle=FEBArtikel&artikel_...
  53. Gravato C., Santos M.A. (2002) Juvenile sea bass liver biotransformation induction and erythrocytic genotoxic responses to pulp mill contaminants. Ecotoxicology And Environmental Safety. 53, 104-112. (see details) ISI paper
    Link: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6WDM-482XDXP-J...
  54. Gravato C., Santos M.A. (2002) Juvenile sea bass liver biotransformation induction and erythrocytic genotoxic responses to resin acids. Ecotoxicology And Environmental Safety. 52, 238-247. (see details) ISI paper
    Link: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6WDM-46SY29P-C...
  55. Gravato C. , Santos M.A. (2002) Juvenile sea bass liver P450, EROD induction and erythrocytic genotoxic responses to PAH and PAH-like compounds. Ecotoxicology And Environmental Safety. 51, 115-127. (see details) ISI paper
    Link: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6WDM-45F4JY6-7...
  56. Gravato C., Santos M.A., Magalhães I (2000) The juvenile Dicenthrarchus Labrax L. biochemical and genotoxic Effects of Harbour Waters. Fresenius Environmental Bulletin. 9, 269-274. (see details) ISI paper
  57. Goncalves P.P., Meireles S.M., Gravato C., Vale M.G.P. (1998) Ca2+-H+ antiport activity in synaptic vesicles isolated from sheep brain cortex. Neuroscience Letters. 247, 2-3, 87-90. (see details) ISI paper
  1. C. Gravato, M. Faria, A. Alves, J. Santos and L. Guilhermino (2008) Biomonitoring Studies Performed with European Eel Populations from the Estuaries of Minho, Lima and Douro Rivers (NW, Portugal). In: Y.J. Kim and U. Platt. (EDS.), Advanced Environmental Monitoring. DORDRECHT. SPRINGER. 30, 390-401. ISBN 978-1-4020-6363-3 (HB), ISBN 978-1-4020-6364-0 (e-book). (see details)
  1. Carlos Gravato (2002) Biomarcadores Ecotoxicológicos em Animais de Vida Aquática. PhD Thesis. (see details)
  2. Carlos Gravato (2002) Biomarcadores Ecotoxicológicos em Animais de Vida Aquática. PhD Thesis. (see details)
  3. Carlos Gravato (1999) Transporte de Cálcio em Vesículas Sinápticas do Córtex Cerebral de Carneiro. MSc Thesis. (see details)
  1. Bordalo M.D., Gravato C., Campos D., Lopes I., Soares A.M.V.M., Pestana J.L.T. (2017) Toxicity of microbial insecticides towards the non-target species Chironomus riparius. (see details)
  2. Ofoegbu P.U., Gravato C., Cruz A., Mendo S., Soares A.M.V.M., Pestana J.L.T. (2015) Freshwater planarians in ecotoxicology: a case study evaluating sub-lethal effects of TBT on Achmidtea mediterranea. (see details)
  3. Diana Campos ., Carla Quintaneiro ., Carlos Gravato ., Amadeu M. V.M. Soares ., João L. T. Pestana . (2015) Ecotoxicological evaluation of the insect repellent DEET. Sub-lethal effects on two aquatic insect species. . (see details)
  4. Silva C.S.E., Novais S.C., Gravato C., Simoes T., Caramalho M., Neves J., Tecelao C., Rodrigues M.J., Maranhao P., Lemos M.F.L. (2013) An in situ assessment of key biomarkers in limpets exposed to sewage pollution. Current Opinion In Biotechnology. 24, S74-S75. (see details) ISI paper
  5. Fátima C. P. Simão, Carlos Gravato, Amadeu M.V.M. Soares, João L.T. Pestana Planarians in ecotoxicology: Effects of phenanthrene on Dugesia tigrina. (see details)