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title Phytotoxicity of natural soils using physiological and biochemical endpoints reveals confounding factors: can a weight of evidence tackle uncertainty?
authors Antunes, SC; Castro, BB; Dias, MC; Moutinho-Pereira, J; Correia, CM; Claro, MT; Gavina, A; Santos, C; Goncalves, F; Pinto, G
author full name Antunes, Sara C.; Castro, Bruno B.; Dias, Maria Celeste; Moutinho-Pereira, Jose; Correia, Carlos M.; Claro, Maria T.; Gavina, Ana; Santos, Conceicao; Goncalves, Fernando; Pinto, Gloria
title Phytotoxicity of natural soils using physiological and biochemical endpoints reveals confounding factors: can a weight of evidence tackle uncertainty?
nationality internacional
language English
document type Article
author keywords Natural and standard soils; Physiological performance; Plant bioassays; Standard protocols
abstract Standard assays for phytotoxicity provide a reductionist view on the performance of plants under toxic stress. To address two of the most prominent issues in plant toxicity studies, our aims were (1) to assess how well physiological and biochemical parameters complement standard toxicological endpoints when testing natural soils and (2) to assess the suitability of three commonly used control soils as comparative references. We compared the performance of Zea mays and Helianthus annuus in three control soils (artificial Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) soil, standard LUFA 2.2 soil, and turf-perlite) against three natural soils representing a gradient of contamination (from a deactivated uranium mine). Standard endpoints (emergence and biomass) were estimated, along with pigment content, photosynthetic parameters, cellular injury, and proline content. The toxicological profile of natural soils was highly dependent on the control soil used as reference; also, plant physiological performance was influenced by the soils' properties. We discuss the need to interpret and combine multiple lines of evidence as a way to increase the degree of confidence one classifies soils based on their ecotoxicity, and this is where the integration of physiological and biochemical parameters bring added value. When facing large variability in soil characteristics, it is best to collect and integrate as much information possible to strengthen conclusions about phytotoxicity of natural soils. Obviously, this refutes reductionist views and places the final conclusion in the hands of expert judgment.
author address [Antunes, Sara C.; Gavina, Ana; Santos, Conceicao] Univ Porto, Dept Biol, Fac Ciencias, Rua Campo Alegre S-N, P-4169007 Oporto, Portugal; [Antunes, Sara C.; Castro, Bruno B.; Goncalves, Fernando; Pinto, Gloria] Univ Aveiro, Ctr Estudos Ambiente & Mar CESAM, Campus Univ Santiago, P-3810193 Aveiro, Portugal; [Castro, Bruno B.; Claro, Maria T.; Goncalves, Fernando; Pinto, Gloria] Univ Aveiro, Dept Biol, Campus Univ Santiago, P-3810193 Aveiro, Portugal; [Dias, Maria Celeste] Univ Coimbra, Fac Ciencias & Tecnol, CEF, Dept Ciencias Vida, P-3000456 Coimbra, Portugal; [Moutinho-Pereira, Jose; Correia, Carlos M.] Univ Tras Os Montes & Alto Douro, Dept Biol & Ambiente, CITAB, P-5000801 Vila Real, Portugal; [Gavina, Ana] Ctr Interdisciplinar Invest Marinha & Ambiental, Rua Bragas 289, P-4050123 Oporto, Portugal; [Santos, Conceicao] Univ Porto, Fac Ciencias, CITAB UP, GreenUP, Rua Campo Alegre, P-4769007 Oporto, Portugal
reprint address Antunes, SC (reprint author), Univ Porto, Dept Biol, Fac Ciencias, Rua Campo Alegre S-N, P-4169007 Oporto, Portugal.; Antunes, SC (reprint author), Univ Aveiro, Ctr Estudos Ambiente & Mar CESAM, Campus Univ Santiago, P-3810193 Aveiro, Portugal.
e-mail address scantunes@fc.up.pt
funding agency and grant number European Funds through COMPETE; National Funds through the Portuguese Science Foundation (FCT) [PEst-C/MAR/LA0017/2013, UID/AMB/50017/2013]; FCT [SFRH/BPD/100865/2014, SFRH/BPD/101669/2014]
funding text This work was supported by European Funds through COMPETE and by National Funds through the Portuguese Science Foundation (FCT) within project PEst-C/MAR/LA0017/2013 and UID/AMB/50017/2013. Maria Celeste Dias and Gloria Pinto were supported by FCT by means of a post-doctoral grant (SFRH/BPD/100865/2014 and SFRH/BPD/101669/2014, respectively).
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cited reference count 73
publisher city HEIDELBERG
issn 1439-0108
29-character source abbreviation J SOIL SEDIMENT
iso source abbreviation J. Soils Sediments
publication date MAR
year published 2016
volume 16
issue 3
beginning page 785
ending page 800
digital object identifier (doi) 10.1007/s11368-015-1306-0
page count 16
web of science category Environmental Sciences; Soil Science
subject category Environmental Sciences & Ecology; Agriculture
document delivery number DE9LD
unique article identifier WOS:000370958100006