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title Demographic history, current expansion and future management challenges of wild boar populations in the Balkans and Europe
authors Velickovic, N; Ferreira, E; Djan, M; Ernst, M; Vidakovic, DO; Monaco, A; Fonseca, C
author full name Velickovic, N.; Ferreira, E.; Djan, M.; Ernst, M.; Vidakovic, D. Obreht; Monaco, A.; Fonseca, C.
title Demographic history, current expansion and future management challenges of wild boar populations in the Balkans and Europe
nationality internacional
source HEREDITY
language English
document type Article
keywords plus MULTILOCUS GENOTYPE DATA; SUS-SCROFA L; GENETIC-STRUCTURE; MICROSATELLITE LOCI; DIVERSITY; INFERENCE; TESTS; DIFFERENTIATION; BOTTLENECKS; SOFTWARE
abstract Wild boar (Sus scrofa), one of the most widespread wildlife species, has entered a stage of continuous growth in Europe, and could even be considered a pest species. We analysed microsatellite variability in 723 wild boars from across Europe, including the northern Dinaric Balkans. Our aims were: (1) to define the population structure of wild boars in the Balkans and its relation with other European populations; (2) to estimate effective populations sizes, levels of intra- and inter-population diversity, inbreeding migration and gene flow patterns; (3) to test subpopulations for bottlenecks; (4) to interpret these results in light of current knowledge about the demographic history of wild boars in Europe; and (5) to discuss the relevance of these findings for management and conservation. Strong population structuring was observed and 14 subpopulations were revealed. High genetic diversity was found, and besides the well-known identity of the Italian populations of Sardinia and Castelporziano, we bring new insights into other potential relevant, refugial populations such as Littoral Slovenia, South Portugal, North-western Iberia and an entire cluster in the Balkans. There was evidence of gene flow going from these refugial subpopulations towards less peripheral and more admixed subpopulations. Recent population bottlenecks and expansions were detected, mostly in the peninsular refuge subpopulations. The results are consistent with the fluctuations of wild boar numbers in Europe since the beginning of the twentieth century. These results should be taken into account in future conservation and management plans for wild boar populations in Europe.
author address [Velickovic, N.; Djan, M.; Vidakovic, D. Obreht] Univ Novi Sad, Fac Sci, Dept Biol & Ecol, Trg Dositeja Obradovica 2, Novi Sad 21000, Serbia; [Ferreira, E.; Fonseca, C.] Univ Aveiro, Dept Biol, Campus Univ Santiago, Aveiro, Portugal; [Ferreira, E.; Fonseca, C.] Univ Aveiro, CESAM, Campus Univ Santiago, Aveiro, Portugal; [Ernst, M.] Mendel Univ Brno, Dept Forest Protect & Wildlife Management, Brno, Czech Republic; [Monaco, A.] Reg Pk Agcy Lazio Reg, Rome, Italy
reprint address Velickovic, N (reprint author), Univ Novi Sad, Fac Sci, Dept Biol & Ecol, Trg Dositeja Obradovica 2, Novi Sad 21000, Serbia.
e-mail address nevena.velickovic@dbe.uns.ac.rs
funding agency and grant number Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Republic of Serbia [43002]; Provincial Secretariat for Science and Technological Development [114-457-2173/2011-01]; Provincial Secretariat for Agriculture, Water Management and Forestry Project 'The assessment of genetic potential of wild boar populations in hunting areas in Vojvodina'; Technology Agency of the Czech Republic [TA02031259]; FEBS Collaborative Experimental Scholarship for Central and Eastern Europe; Fundacao para a Ciencia e Tecnologia; POPH; European Union [SFRH/BPD/72895/2010]; University of Aveiro (Department of Biology); FCT/MEC [UID/AMB/50017]; FEDER
funding text This work was financially supported by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Republic of Serbia (Grant No. 43002), the Provincial Secretariat for Science and Technological Development (Grant No. 114-457-2173/2011-01) and the Provincial Secretariat for Agriculture, Water Management and Forestry Project 'The assessment of genetic potential of wild boar populations in hunting areas in Vojvodina'. The study was also conducted under Project No. TA02031259 of the Technology Agency of the Czech Republic. We thank all those who helped us in collecting samples: Mladen Gagrcin, Zoran Rasic, Dragan Rogozarski, the public company 'Vojvodinasume' Novi Sad (Serbia); Vladimir Maletic (FYR Macedonia); Matija Stergar (Slovenia); Ranko Savic, Darko Cvijovic, Veterinary Ambulance Niksic (Montenegro); Albert Marinculic (Croatia); Ivona Panic (Bosnia and Herzegovina); Aderbal Cavalcante-Neto (Brasil); Juan Carranza (Spain); Luca Aicardo, Barbara Franzetti, Aurelio Perrone, Andrea Marsan, Massimo Bellavita, Luca Cimino (Italy); and all the Portuguese and Balkan biologists, veterinarians, hunters and hunter associations that collected samples. We thank Carlo Robino for providing us with full genotypes for wild boar populations from North-western Italy. Nevena Velickovic was supported by a FEBS Collaborative Experimental Scholarship for Central and Eastern Europe. Eduardo Ferreira was supported by the Fundacao para a Ciencia e Tecnologia, POPH and European Union (Grant SFRH/BPD/72895/2010). We thank University of Aveiro (Department of Biology) and FCT/MEC for the financial support to CESAM RU (UID/AMB/50017) through national funds co-financed by the FEDER, within the PT2020 Partnership Agreement. We thank John O'Brien for proofreading the manuscript.
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cited reference count 68
publisher NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP
publisher city LONDON
publisher address MACMILLAN BUILDING, 4 CRINAN ST, LONDON N1 9XW, ENGLAND
issn 0018-067X
29-character source abbreviation HEREDITY
iso source abbreviation Heredity
publication date NOV
year published 2016
volume 117
issue 5
beginning page 348
ending page 357
digital object identifier (doi) 10.1038/hdy.2016.53
page count 10
web of science category Ecology; Evolutionary Biology; Genetics & Heredity
subject category Environmental Sciences & Ecology; Evolutionary Biology; Genetics & Heredity
document delivery number DZ4NR
unique article identifier WOS:000385835900006
link http://www.nature.com/hdy/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/hdy201653a.html